Bhutan Is On Track To Achieve The 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals

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Last year, the Voluntary National Review of Bhutan to UN found that except for networking and economic vulnerability, the country was on track in implementing the SDGs.

(Source: AJ Heath)

 

By Choki Wangmo | Kuensel

Despite results from the Global Sustainable Development Report 2019 (GSDR) pointing towards the unsustainable model of development and implementation of SDGs 2030 in the world, Bhutan is well on the way to achieving the goals.

The Future is Now: Science for Achieving Sustainable Development is the first quadrennial report prepared by 15 independent groups of scientists, appointed by the UN Secretary General.

 

Source: UN Sustainable Development

 

The report concluded that the world is at the risk of irreversibly degrading the Earth’s natural systems and is off-track in achieving the SDGs.

Bhutan’s progress so far in achieving the 17 SDGs

However, Prime Minister Dr Lotay Tshering said that the implementation of SDGs in Bhutan was synonymous to Bhutan’s developmental principle of Gross National Happiness (GNH).

“We are on track. This year, the United Nations General Assembly’s theme is localising SDGs. No country in the world has localised the goals like Bhutan has,” Lyonchhen said.

According to the 17 SDGs, the country has identified 17 National Key Result Areas. The Secretary of Gross National Happiness Commission (GNHC), Thinley Namgyel, said that there were different committees at different levels to provide dedicated executive guidance and administrative support to SDG implementation.

The 15-member GNH Commission, chaired by the Prime Minister, assumes the responsibility of overseeing SDG-related matters.

The Prime Minister said the GNHC was entrusted with the responsibility to coordinate, advise, monitor, evaluate and report on the progress of the implementation of the SDGs in Bhutan.

Last year, the Voluntary National Review of Bhutan to UN found that except for networking and economic vulnerability, the country was on track in implementing the SDGs.

 

Source: UN Bhutan

 

“If we are heard throughout the world, we would be an example on the implementation of SDG 2030. Preparing a voluntary national review is hard, but to know how far we have come and how we can go forward, we will produce the report annually,” the Lyonchhen said.

Four critical areas to address

The report emphasised four key areas at tipping point — inequalities, climate change, biodiversity loss, and increasing amounts of waste from human activity, which would cause irreversible impact on the planet if changes were not made urgently.

An official from the GNHC said that besides Bhutan’s constitutional mandate of maintaining a minimum of 60 per cent of forest cover, the country has also prepared and implemented the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) and is now working on the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) focussing on climate change and water impact.

The Government has also developed the National Action Programme to combat land degradation as well as the National Biodiversity Action Programme.

Benefits of developing the Sectoral Adaptation Plan of Action

To provide better sectoral focus in terms of adaptation actions, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forest developed the Sectoral Adaptation Plan of Action (SAPA) to guide its project, programme and activity alignment.

“Keeping the commitment of carbon neutral development, Bhutan developed sectoral strategies on waste, transport, industry and the elaboration of GHG mitigation measures in three sectors of human settlement, industry and energy efficiency,” the official said.

Resident Coordinator of UN Bhutan, Gerald Daly, said that the UN has contributed in Bhutan’s effort to adapt to and build resilience against the impact of climate change through the Green Climate Fund.

“Bhutan’s carbon-negative feature is highlighted in this global report which shows that Bhutan is indeed a valued environmental role-model to the rest of the international community,” Gerald Daly said.

The report projected that the global use of materials is set to almost double between 2017 and 2060, from 89 gigatons to 167 gigatons, with increased levels of greenhouse gas emissions and other toxic effects such as those from mining and other pollution sources.

In the country, reports have shown that the import of fuel-based vehicles is on the rise due to inadequate public transport in urban areas.

Promoting the usage of electric vehicles

To minimise long-term impacts in the country, GNHC official said that RGoB had plans to encourage the use of electric vehicles.

The public will be able to do so through facilities such as quick charging stations, as well as subsidies and tax exemption.

To increase the usage of zero emission vehicles in the country, there are initiatives to replace fuel-based taxis by electric taxis through the introduction of the Bhutan Rapid Transport (BRT) in the capital city to ensure fast, comfortable and cost-effective services.

“By 2023, Bhutan aims to reduce the frequency of urban transport services from 15 to 10 minutes. We are also exploring possibilities of replacing fuel-based bus by the electric buses,” the official said.

Gerald Daly said that 300 electric vehicles and 12 fast-charging stations are coming to Bhutan, which is in line with the GSDR report.

“This project is catalytic as it will help to test and prove the viability of new technology, reduce pollution, strengthen our private sector and perhaps most importantly, reduce our reliance on expensive fuel imports.”

Problems faced by rural communities in Bhutan

In Bhutan, due to increased rural-urban migration, there were reports of fallow agricultural lands in rural areas although agriculture was identified as one of the five jewels to provide livelihood.

People abandoned their fields mainly due to rising human-wildlife conflict in the east and the south.

GSDR zoomed in on the need to develop food, energy systems, consumption and production, and cities for human health and well-being.

 

 

Graphic: Facebook/UN Bhutan

 

In the 12th Plan, strategies to minimise human-wildlife conflict was identified. In addition, providing incentives, strengthening the irrigation system, farm mechanisation, enhancement of farm labour, implementing a price support system for agriculture produce and creating a network for post-production and marketing were some of the key areas to be addressed.

Thinley Namgyel said that in the rural communities, farmers were provided subsidy in the form of training, agriculture tools and seedlings to make sense of the fallow land and to promote food security.

“To tackle human-wildlife conflict, electric fencing is provided free of cost and the ministry of agriculture is exploring innovative ideas to solve the issue with the advent of frontier technology.”

Community-led ideas such as insurance scheme to cover the losses, he said, were supported and looked after by the ministry.

“There is also a revised Human-Wildlife Conflict Management Strategy (2018-28) which is in the final stages of formulation, to tackle the issue.”

 

This article first appeared in Kuensel and has been edited for Daily Bhutan.

 


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